Low-Salt Diet May Reduce Formation of Calcium Oxalate Kidney Stones
In a randomized study involving 210 patients affected by idiopathic calcium stone disease (kidney stones) and hypercalciuria (>300 mg Ca/d in men and >250 mg Ca/d in women), adherence to a low-salt (low-sodium) diet for 3 months in addition to water therapy was found to reduce urinary sodium (from 228 to 68 mmol/d), urinary calcium (from 361 to 271 mg/d), and oxalate excretion (from 32 to 28 mg/d), significantly more than subjects who received water therapy alone. Moreover, by study end, 62% of subjects in the low-sodium plus water therapy group were found to have urinary calcium levels within the normal range, as compared to only 34% of those in the water therapy alone group. The authors conclude, "A low-salt diet can reduce calcium excretion in hypercalciuric stone formers." Reference: "Effects of a low-salt diet on idiopathic hypercalciuria in calcium-oxalate stone formers: a 3-mo randomized controlled trial," Nouvenne A, Meschi T, et al, Am J Clin Nutr, 2010 March; 91(3): 565-70. (Address: Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).
Magnesium Intake May Reduce Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Men
In a study involving data collected from 40,830 men and 46,287 women between the ages of 45 and 74 years, high dietary intake of magnesium was found to be associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer in men, but not women. During a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (for men) and 8.3 years (for women), a total of 689 and 440 colorectal cancer cases, respectively, were observed. Male subjects in the highest quintile of magnesium intake were found to have a 0.65 hazard ratio for colorectal cancer, 0.48 for colon cancer and 0.97 for rectal cancer, as compared to males in the lowest quintiles. Similar associations were found for invasive colon cancer and distal colon cancer. No significant associations were found between magnesium intake and colorectal cancer in women. The authors conclude, "Higher dietary intake of magnesium may decrease the risk of CRC in Japanese men." Reference: "High Dietary Intake of Magnesium May Decrease Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Japanese Men," Ma E, Sasazuki S, et al, J Nutr, 2010 Feb 17; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo 104-0045, Japan).
Alpha-Lipoic Acid + Exercise - May Benefit Patients with Alzheimer's Disease
In a study involving non-transgenic mice and NSE/APPsw transgenic mice (used as an animal model of the pathological phenotype of Alzheimer's disease), treatment with alpha-lipoic acid plus treadmill exercise for a period of 16 weeks was found to improve spatial learning and memory, as compared to sedentary mice and mice who only received a single treatment. In addition, mice who received the combination treatment experienced a significant increase in the level of glucose transporter-1 and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor proteins, and a significant increase in levels of SOD-1 and CAT suppressing oxidative stress. No significant difference in Abeta-42 peptide levels was found. The authors conclude, "...these results suggest that the combination with ET and LA may contribute to protect the neuron injury induced by Abeta peptides and may be considered an effective therapeutic strategy for human subjects suffering from AD." Reference: "The combination of exercise training and alpha-lipoic acid treatment has therapeutic effects on the pathogenic phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease in NSE/APPsw-transgenic mice," Cho JY, Int J Mol Med, 2010 March; 25(3): 337-46. (Address: Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, Korea National Sport University, Seoul 138-763, Korea. E-mail: email@example.com ).
Probiotic Supplementation May Be Effective In The Treatment Of Ulcerative Colitis
In this case-report, the authors present a 71-year-old man diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) complicated with multidrug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. The patient failed to respond to steroid therapy, antibiotics or several types of induction therapy. However, the patient's condition significantly improved with supplementation with Bifidobacterium (probiotics). Thus, the authors suggest, "Probiotics could be one of the treatment agents for induction of remission in UC." Reference: "Ulcerative Colitis with Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Successfully Treated with Bifidobacterium," Nagasaki A, Nakajima A, et al, Digestion, 2010; 81(3): 204-205. (Address: Gastroenterology Division, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan).
Probiotic Supplementation May Be Beneficial For Chronic Constipation
In an intervention study involving 19 nursing home residents with chronic constipation, results indicate that supplementation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB: beneficial probiotics) may be effective in improving constipation. The subjects were assigned to LAB (3.0 x 1011 CFU/g) twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner) a day for 2 weeks. At intervention end, increase in frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit was observed. Additionally, tryptophanase and urease enzyme activities of intestinal microflora significantly decreased. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation." Reference: "Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents," An HM, Ha NJ, et al, Nutr J, 2010; 9(1):5.
Probiotic Supplementation During Pregnancy May Be Beneficial
In a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 256 pregnant women, results indicate that probiotic supplementation and dietary counseling during pregnancy may improve pregnancy outcomes and reduce risk of gestational diabetes and larger birth size. The women were randomized in their first trimester to one of three groups: 1) diet+probiotic group: received intensive dietary counseling and probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12); 2) diet group: received intensive dietary counseling; 3) diet+placebo group: received intensive dietary counseling and placebo. During pregnancy, 13% of women in the diet+probiotic group were diagnosed with gestational diabetes, compared with 36% in the diet+placebo group and 34% in the diet group. Additionally, probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced risk of larger birth size. Thus, the authors conclude, "The results of the present study show that probiotic-supplemented perinatal dietary counseling could be a safe and cost-effective tool in addressing the metabolic epidemic. In view of the fact that birth size is a risk marker for later obesity, the present results are of significance for public health in demonstrating that this risk is modifiable." Reference: "Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study," Luoto R, Laitinen K, et al, J Nutr. 2010 Feb 4:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520 Turku, Finland).
Glucosamine Sulphate plus Walking Regimen May Reduce Osteoarthritis Symptoms
In a study involving 36 low active subjects with mild to moderate osteoarthritis of the knee or hip, supplementation with 1500 mg/d glucosamine sulphate along with participation in a 12-week progressive walking program (walking 3-5 days/week, gradually walking up to 3000 steps/d during the first 6 weeks (approximately 30 minutes of walking), and increasing up to 6000 steps/d during the following 6 weeks), was found to improve physical activity levels, physical function, and total WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index scores. Additional improvements in these outcomes were seen at 24 weeks follow-up. The authors conclude, "In people with hip or knee OA, walking a minimum of 3000 steps (~30 minutes), at least 3 days/week, in combination with glucosamine sulphate, may reduce OA symptoms. A more robust study with a larger sample is needed to support these preliminary findings." Reference: "Efficacy of a progressive walking program and glucosamine sulphate supplementation on osteoarthritic symptoms of the hip and knee: a feasibility trial," Ng NT, Heesch KC, et al, Arthritis Res There, 2010 Feb 12; 12(1): R25. (Address: KC Heesch, The University of Queensland, School of Human Movement Studies, Blair Drive, St Lucia Campus, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia )
Multivitamin and Mineral Supplementation Benefits Obese Individuals
In a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, intervention study involving 96 obese women (BMI: 28 kg/m(2)) between the ages of 18 and 55 years, supplementation with a multivitamin and mineral supplement was found to reduce body weight, body mass index, fat mass, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol, increase resting energy expenditure and HDL-cholesterol, and borderline significantly reduce respiratory quotient, as compared to placebo. Subjects who received supplementation with 162 mg/d calcium alone were found to have reductions in LDL and increases in HDL cholesterol. The authors conclude, "...in obese individuals, multivitamin and mineral supplementation could reduce BW and fatness and improve serum lipid profiles, possibly through increased energy expenditure and fat oxidation. Reference: "Effects of multivitamin and mineral supplementation on adiposity, energy expenditure and lipid profiles in obese Chinese women," Li Y, Wang C, et al, Int J Obes (Lond), 2010 Feb 9; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China
Eating Mixed Nuts May Reduce DNA Damage
In a randomized, controlled study involving 50 metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients, results indicate that nut consumption may significantly reduce DNA damage. The subjects received a healthy diet with or without 30 g of mixed nuts daily for 12 weeks. During intervention, a significant reduction in DNA damage was observed in the mixed nuts group, compared with the control group. Additionally, no significant differences were found between the groups in plasma antioxidant capacity, oxidized LDL, conjugated diene formation, 8-isoprostanes or endothelial function. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "Nut consumption has no deleterious effect on lipid oxidation. The decrease in DNA damage observed in this study could contribute to explain the beneficial effects of regular nut consumption on some MetS features and several chronic diseases." Reference: "Effect of nut consumption on oxidative stress and the endothelial function in metabolic syndrome," Lopez-Uriarte P, Salas-Salvado J, et al, Clin Nutr, 2010 Jan 9; [Epub ahead of print]. Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hospital Universitari Sant Joan de Reus, IISPV, Rovira i Virgili University, Sant Llorenc 21, 43201 Reus, Tarragona, Spain).
Red Yeast Rice and Policosanols Treat Hypercholesterolemia in Children
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving 40 children between the ages of 8 and 16 years, with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia and familial combined hyperlipidemia, supplementation with 200 mg/d red yeast rice extract (corresponding to 3 mg of monacolins) and 10 mg/d policosanols for a period of 8 weeks was found to significantly reduce total cholesterol by 18.5%, LDL-cholesterol by 25.1%, and apolipoprotein B by 25.3%. No significant changes in HDL-cholesterol and apolipoprotein-A-I levels were found. The authors conclude, "The treatment with a dietary supplement containing red yeast rice extract and policosanols has been for the first time successfully employed in hypercholesterolemic children." Reference: "The treatment of hypercholesterolemic children: Efficacy and safety of a combination of red yeast rice extract and policosanols," Guardamagna O, Abello F, et al, Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis, 2010 Feb 10; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Department of Pediatrics, University of Turin, Piazza Polonia, 94, I-10126 Turin, Italy).
Vitamin A and Zinc Supplementation May Benefit Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
In a randomized, double-blind, clinical study involving 48 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (ages 7-20 years, duration of diabetes: at least 2 years), supplementation with zinc (10 mg/d elemental zinc) and vitamin A (25,000 IU every other day) for a period of 12 weeks was found to improve serum apoprotein A-I, apoprotein B and apoprotein B/apoprotein A-I ratio, as compared to placebo. The authors point out that, "There is accumulating evidence that shows the metabolism of zinc and vitamin A are altered in diabetes mellitus type I (DMTI)...." The results of this study suggest that supplementation with zinc and vitamin A may benefit patients with type 1 diabetes. Reference: "Effects of combination of zinc and vitamin A supplementation on serum fasting blood sugar, insulin, apoprotein B and apoprotein A-I in patients with type I diabetes," Shidfar F, Aghasi M, et al, Int J Food Sci Nutr, 2010; 61(2): 182-91.
Zinc and Selenium Supplementation Beneficial to Pediatric Malignant Lymphoma Patients
In a study involving 96 untreated patients with malignant lymphoma, 81 Hodgkin's disease, 15 Burkitt's lymphoma, chronic zinc and selenium deficiencies were found to be associated with malignant lymphoma. The authors hypothesize that this may be due to the poor 'nutritional environment' resulting from the low socioeconomic status the majority of these patients came from. Based on these findings the authors conclude, "Supplementation of pediatric ML patients with Zn and Se, in addition to standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimen, is recommended." Reference: "Zinc and selenium status in pediatric malignant lymphomas," Cavdar AO, Gozdasoglu S, et al, Nutr Cancer, 2009; 61(6): 888-90. (Address: Cavdar AO, Gozdasoglu S, et al, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey, and Turkish Academy of Sciences and UNESCO Satellite Center, Ankara, Turkey).
Increased Concentration of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Protects Against Atrial Fibrillation
In a study involving 2,174 men (subjects aged 42-60 years, from a prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study), free of atrial fibrillation (AF) at baseline, increased serum concentrations of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were found to protect against atrial fibrillation. Subjects were followed up with for an average 17.7 years, during which time 240 atrial fibrillation events occurred. The hazard ratio for the highest versus the lowest quartiles of EPA plus DPA plus DHA was 0.65. When evaluated individually, only serum DHA was associated with a reduced risk of AF (HR for highest versus lowest=0.62). The authors conclude, "An increased concentration of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in serum, a marker of fish or fish oil consumption, may protect against AF. Serum docosahexaenoic acid concentration had the greatest impact. Reference: "Serum long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of hospital diagnosis of atrial fibrillation in men," Virtanen JK, Mursu J, et al, Circulation, 2009; 120(23): 2315-21. (Address: Research Institute of Public Health, School of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Improve Pulmonary Function in Athletes
In a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 40 healthy, young, male wrestlers, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids (1000 mg/d) for a period of 12 weeks was found to significantly benefit pulmonary function, specifically FEV1, FVC, VC, MVV, FEF25-75, FIV1, while not significantly affecting FEV1% and FIV1%, during 12 weeks of exercise training (wrestling incremental training up to 95% of exercise MHR, 3 times/week). The authors conclude, "The results of the present study suggest that consuming omega-3 during intensive wrestling training can improve pulmonary function of athletes during and in post-exercise." Reference: "The effects of omega-3 supplementation on pulmonary function of young wrestlers during intensive training," Tartibian B, Maleki BH, et al, J Sci Med Sport, 2010 March; 13(2): 281-286.
Acupuncture Treatment Alleviates Depression During Pregnancy
In a randomized, controlled trial involving 150 pregnant women diagnosed with major depressive disorder, treatment with acupuncture specific for depression (12 sessions over a period of 8 weeks) was found to significantly decrease the severity of depressive symptoms, as compared to subjects who received "control acupuncture" (acupuncture not specific for depression), and as compared to subjects who received massage. The authors conclude, "The short acupuncture protocol demonstrated symptom reduction and a response rate comparable to those observed in standard depression treatments of similar length and could be a viable treatment option for depression during pregnancy." Reference: "Acupuncture for depression during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial," Manber R, Schnyer RN, et al, Obstet Gynecol, 2010, 115(3): 511-20. (Address: Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA. E-mail: email@example.com ).
DHA Benefits Brain Health Throughout the Lifespan
In a study involving 280 subjects between the ages of 35 and 54 years, free of major psychiatric disorders, higher levels of the omega-3 fatty acid, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) in serum phospholipids was found to be associated with improved cognitive functioning, specifically, better performance on tests of nonverbal reasoning and metal flexibility, working memory, and vocabulary. No such associations were found for the other omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and ALA. The authors conclude, "These findings suggest that DHA is related to brain health throughout the lifespan and may have implications for clinical trials of neuropsychiatric disorders." Reference: "Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenonic Acid Is Associated with Cognitive Functioning during Middle Adulthood," Muldoon MF, Ryan CM, et al, J Nutr, 2010 Feb 24; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Center for Clinical Pharmacology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation May Benefit Chronic Heart Failure Patients
In a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 138 patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA class II-III), results indicate that supplementation with omega-3 PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) may exert anti-inflammatory effects. The patients were randomized to 0.9 g/d of omega-3 PUFA or olive oil for 24 weeks. At intervention end, a significant reduction in circulating levels of sP-selectin was found. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "omega-3 PUFA may reduce sP-selectin, indicating a possible effect on platelet (and endothelial) activation."
"EFFECTS OF MARINE N-3 FATTY ACIDS ON CIRCULATING LEVELS OF SOLUBLE ADHESION MOLECULES IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEART FAILURE," Eschen O, Schmidt EB, et al, Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand), 2010 Feb 25; 56(1): 45-51. (Address: Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg Department of Cardiology, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Aalborg Sygehus Aarhus Denmark).
Nutritional Supplementation May Reduce Aggressive Behavior among Young Adults in Prison
In a placebo-controlled study involving 221 young adult Dutch prisoners between the ages of 18 and 25 years, supplementation with vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids over a period of 1-3 months was found to be associated with significant reductions in reported incidents of aggressive behavior and rule-breaking, as compared to a 14% increase in such incidents among prisoners who received a placebo. No significant changes in other psychiatric symptoms were found. The results of this study are promising, however, the authors conclude that these results be interpreted with caution since significant improvements in other outcomes measures were not found. Additional research is warranted. Reference: "Effects of nutritional supplements on aggression, rule-breaking, and psychopathology among young adult prisoners," Zaalberg A, Nijman H, et al, Aggress Behav, 2010 March; 36(2): 117-26. (Address: WODC, Ministry of Justice, The Hague, The Netherlands. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).
Probiotic (Good Babteria) Supplementation May Be Effective In The Treatment Of Ulcerative Colitis
In this case-report, the authors present a 71-year-old man diagnosed with ulcerative colitis (UC) complicated with multidrug-resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. The patient failed to respond to steroid therapy, antibiotics or several types of induction therapy. However, the patient's condition significantly improved with supplementation with Bifidobacterium (probiotics). Thus, the authors suggest, "Probiotics could be one of the treatment agents for induction of remission in UC." Reference: "Ulcerative Colitis with Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection Successfully Treated with Bifidobacterium," Nagasaki A, Nakajima A, et al, Digestion, 2010; 81(3): 204-205. (Address: Gastroenterology Division, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan
Probiotics Supplementation In Relieving Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study involving 45 adults with symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) receiving treatment with pharmacological anti-arthritic medications, results indicate that adjuvant supplementation with lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) probiotics may exert beneficial effects. The subjects were randomized to receive LAB probiotic preparation, Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, or placebo daily for a period of 60 days. Subjects in the probiotic-supplemented group reported improvement in the Patient Pain Assessment score and Pain Scale, and greater improvement in patient global assessment and self-assessed disability, and ability to walk 2 miles, reach, and participate in daily activities, compared to subjects in the placebo group. Thus, the authors conclude, "Results of this pilot study suggest that adjunctive treatment with Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 LAB probiotic appeared to be safe and effective for patient s suffering from RA. Because of the low study population size, larger trials are needed to verify these results." Reference: "Bacillus coagulans: a viable adjunct therapy for relieving symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis according to a randomized, controlled trial," Mandel DR, Holmes J, et al, BMC Complement Altern Med, 2010 Jan 12; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: David R. Mandel, MD, Inc., Mayfield Village, OH 44143, USA. E-mail: email@example.com ).