Vitamin D Supplementation May Help Protect Against Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in African Americans
In a prospective study involving more than 215,000 Caucasians, African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans and Latinos, aged 45-75 years, results indicate that higher dietary vitamin D intake may be associated with a reduced risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in African Americans. During 10 years of follow up, 939 incident NHL cases were identified. Vitamin D intake was associated with a 50% reduced risk of NHL in African American women and a 32% reduced risk in African American men. However, overall no significant association was observed between vitamin D intake and risk of NHL. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "High dietary intake of vitamin D did not show a protective effect against NHL within the MEC except among African Americans, possibly because vitamin D production due to sun exposure is limited in this population." Reference: "Dietary vitamin D and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: the multiethnic cohort," Erber E, Kolonel LN, et al, Br J Nutr, 2010; 103(4): 581-4. (Address: Cancer Research Center of Hawai'i, University of Hawaii, 1236 Lauhala Street, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA. E-mail: email@example.com ).
Probiotic Supplementation During Pregnancy May Be Beneficial
In a randomized, placebo-controlled study involving 256 pregnant women, results indicate that probiotic supplementation and dietary counseling during pregnancy may improve pregnancy outcomes and reduce risk of gestational diabetes and larger birth size. The women were randomized in their first trimester to one of three groups: 1) diet+probiotic group: received intensive dietary counseling and probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12); 2) diet group: received intensive dietary counseling; 3) diet+placebo group: received intensive dietary counseling and placebo. During pregnancy, 13% of women in the diet+probiotic group were diagnosed with gestational diabetes, compared with 36% in the diet+placebo group and 34% in the diet group. Additionally, probiotic supplementation was associated with reduced risk of larger birth size. Thus, the authors conclude, "The results of the present study show that probiotic-supplemented perinatal dietary coun seling could be a safe and cost-effective tool in addressing the metabolic epidemic. In view of the fact that birth size is a risk marker for later obesity, the present results are of significance for public health in demonstrating that this risk is modifiable." Reference: "Impact of maternal probiotic-supplemented dietary counselling on pregnancy outcome and prenatal and postnatal growth: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study," Luoto R, Laitinen K, et al, J Nutr. 2010 Feb 4:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Department of Paediatrics, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, 20520 Turku, Finland).
Eating Rye Bread May Help Relieve Constipation
In a randomized study involving 51 constipated adults, results indicate that consumption of rye bread may be an alternative to taking laxatives to relieve constipation. The subjects were randomized to receive whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d), LGG (Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG; 2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d) + LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), white wheat bread (maximum 192 g/d), or laxatives (as usual for a participant) for a period of 3 weeks. Consumption of rye bread was found to shorten total intestinal transit time (TITT) by 23%, increase weekly defecations by 1.4, soften feces, ease defecation, increase fecal acetic acid (24%) and butyric acid (63%) contents, and reduce fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 23%, compared with consumption of white bread. Additionally, rye bread consumption reduced TITT by 41%, fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 38%, and fecal pH by 0.31 units, compared with intake of laxatives. LGG intake had no significant effect on constipation. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "Rye bread relieves mild constipation and improves colonic metabolism compared with white wheat bread and commonly used laxatives without increasing gastrointestinal adverse effects." Reference: "Constipation Is Relieved More by Rye Bread Than Wheat Bread or Laxatives without Increased Adverse Gastrointestinal Effects," Holma R, Korpela R, et al, J Nutr, 2010 Jan 20; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Institute of Biomedicine, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland).
Probiotic(Good Bacteria) Supplementation May Be Beneficial For Chronic Constipation
In an intervention study involving 19 nursing home residents with chronic constipation, results indicate that supplementation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB: beneficial probiotics) may be effective in improving constipation. The subjects were assigned to LAB (3.0 x 1011 CFU/g) twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner) a day for 2 weeks. At intervention end, increase in frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit was observed. Additionally, tryptophanase and urease enzyme activities of intestinal microflora significantly decreased. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation." Reference: "Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents," An HM, Ha NJ, et al, Nutr J, 2010; 9(1):5. (Address: Department of Pharmacy, Sahmyook University, Seoul 139-742, Republic of Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).
High Dose DHA Supplementation May Benefit Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
In an open-label, single-arm, phase II study involving 25 breast cancer patients with rapidly progressing visceral metastases undergoing chemotherapy, results indicate that high dose supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may improve chemotherapy outcome. Patients received an anthracycline-based chemotherapy (FEC) regimen supplemented with 1.8 g DHA daily. High-dose DHA supplementation was found to increase overall survival (12 months). Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "DHA during chemotherapy was devoid of adverse side effects and can improve the outcome of chemotherapy when highly incorporated. DHA has a potential to specifically chemosensitise tumours." Reference: "Improving outcome of chemotherapy of metastatic breast cancer by docosahexaenoic acid: a phase II trial," Bougnoux P, Le Floch O, et al, Br J Cancer, 2009; 101(12): 1978-85. (Address: INSERM U921 Nutrition, Croissance et Cancer, Tours, France. E-mail: email@example.com ).
Fruits and Vegetables May Decrease While Animal Products May Increase Risk of Laryngeal(Vocal Cord) Cancer
In a study involving data from a case-control study involving 460 hospitalized patients with histologically confirmed laryngeal cancer and 1,088 acutely hospitalized patients without cancer, consumption of a diet characterized as rich in “vitamins and fiber” was found to be inversely associated with laryngeal cancer (OR=0.35 for the highest vs. the lowest quartile), while the dietary patterns characterized as “animal products” and “animal unsaturated fatty acids” were directly associated with laryngeal cancer risk (ORs=2.34 and 2.07, respectively). The authors conclude, “These findings suggest that diets rich in animal products and animal fats are directly related, and those rich in fruit and vegetables inversely related, to laryngeal cancer risk.”
“Nutrient-based dietary patterns and laryngeal cancer: evidence from an exploratory factor analysis,” Edefonti V, Bravi F, et al, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 2010; 19(1): 18-27
L-Carnitine Supplementation May Improve Muscle Recovery After Physical Exertion
In a placebo-controlled, crossover design study involving 18 healthy men and women, results indicate that l-carnitine supplementation may improve muscle recovery after acute physical exertion. The subjects received l-carnitine (2g/d) or placebo for 3 weeks and then performed an acute exercise challenge. Following a 4 day recovery period and a 1-week washout period the interventions were crossed over for another 3 weeks. Blood samples were drawn pre- and post-exercise. Carnitine supplementation was associated with attenuated biochemical markers of purine metabolism, free radical formation, muscle tissue disruption, and muscle soreness after physical exertion. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, “These findings support our previous findings of l-carnitine in younger people that such supplementation can reduce chemical damage to tissues after exercise and optimize the processes of muscle tissue repair and remodeling.
“l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women, Ho JY, Maresh CM, et al, Metabolism, 2009 Dec 30; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-1110, USA
Dietary Intake of Omega-6 Fatty Acids May Protect Against Development of Cataracts
In a prospective study involving 12,308 men and women, initially free of cataracts, results indicate that dietary intake of fatty acids, particularly omega-6 fatty acids, may be inversely associated with risk of developing cataracts. Fatty acids intake was assessed using a validated 136-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. During a follow up of up to 6 years, 182 incident cases of cataracts were recorded. After adjusting for confounders, the highest category of dietary intake of omega-6 fatty acids was associated with a 42% reduced risk of cataracts. Similarly, the highest category of dietary intake of fatty acids (saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated omega-6 and polyunsaturated omega-3) was associated with a 46% reduced risk of development of cataracts. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, “High intake of omega-6 fatty acids showed a modest but significant inverse association with the development of cataracts.”
“[Dietary fat intake and incidence of cataracts: The SUN Prospective study in the cohort of Navarra, Spain], Martínez-Lapiscina EH, Moreno-Montañés J, et al, Med Clin (Barc), 2010 Jan 5; [Epub ahead of print].
Intake of Vitamins and Minerals May Reduce the Risk of Bladder Cancer
In a case-control study involving 322 cases and 239 controls, total intake of various vitamins and minerals were found to be inversely associated with bladder cancer risk. Specifically - comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles, total intake of vitamin E was associated with an OR of 0.66 and dietary intake of phosphorus was associated with an OR of 0.49. In smokers, vitamin E intake (highest vs lowest quartile) was associated with an OR of 0.58, carotenoids were associated with an OR of 0.62, and niacin was associated with an OR of 0.66. In older adults, higher intakes of carotenoids, vitamin D, thiamin, niacin, and vitamin E were all inversely associated with bladder cancer risk. The authors conclude, "Our findings suggest further investigation of the effect of vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin D, thiamin, and niacin on bladder cancer risk may be warranted. Future studies should focus on high risk groups such as heavy smokers and older individuals."
“Minerals and vitamins and the risk of bladder cancer: results from the New Hampshire Study,” Brinkman MT, Karagas MR, et al, Cancer Causes Control, 2009 Dec 31
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation May Benefit Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis
In a controlled study involving patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving treatment with the medication, indomethacin, results indicate that concomitant supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may enhance disease activity suppression. The patients received indomethacin (75 mg) + omega-3 fatty acids (3 g) daily or indomethacin (75 mg) alone for a period of 12 weeks. At intervention end, subjects in the idomethacin+omega-3 group showed significant improvement in disease activity, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, general health, vitality, social functioning, grip strength, and duration of morning stiffness, compared with subjects in the indomethacin group. Thus, the authors conclude, "This study suggests that omega-3 fatty acid supplementation with indomethacin might ameliorate disease activity and be non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) sparing in rheumatoid arthritis."
"Role of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation with indomethacin in suppression of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis," Das Gupta AB, Khan AL, et al, Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull, 2009; 35(2): 63-8.
Low Serum Folate May be Linked to Increased Depressive Symptoms
In a cross-sectional study involving 313 men and 217 Japanese women between the ages of 21 and 67 years, higher serum folate was found to be associated with a decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms in men. 36.1% of men and 36.4% of women were found to have depressive symptoms. Comparing the highest to the lowest quartiles of serum folate, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of depressive symptoms were: 1.00, 0.53, 0.33, and 0.51, respectively. Additional date suggests a positive association between serum homocysteine levels and depressive symptoms in men. No such associations were found in women. The authors conclude, "Low serum folate may be related to an increased prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japanese men."
"Serum folate and homocysteine and depressive symptoms among Japanese men and women," Nanri A, Mizoue T, et al, Eur J Clin Nutr, 2010 Jan 20; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo, Japan)
Sodium and Salted Food Intakes and Risks of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
In a study involving data collected from 77,500 men and women between the ages of 45 and 74 years, followed up with for 598,763 person-years, during which time 4,476 cases of cancer and 2,066 cases of cardiovascular disease were identified, higher consumption of sodium was associated with a higher risk of CVD, but not cancer (highest vs. lowest quintiles of intake: 1.19 for CVD, 1.04 for cancer), higher consumption of salted fish roe was associated with a higher risk of total cancer, and higher consumption of cooking and table salt was associated with a higher risk of CVD. The authors conclude, "Our findings support the notion that sodium and salted foods have differential influences on the development of cancer and CVD."
"Consumption of sodium and salted foods in relation to cancer and cardiovascular disease: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study," Takachi R, Inoue M, et al, Am J Clin Nutr, 2010 Feb; 91(2): 456-64. (Address: Epidemiology and Prevention Division, Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan).
Eating Citrus Fruits May Help Protect Against Cancer
In a prospective study involving 42,470 Japanese adults (40-79 years of age) in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort, results indicate that citrus consumption may exert a preventive effect against cancer, particularly in individuals who drink green tea. During 8 years of follow-up, 3,398 incident cases of cancer were recorded. Using Cox proportional-hazard models adjusted for potential confounders, daily consumption of citrus was associated with a 17% reduced risk of all-cancer in patients who drank a cup of green tea daily. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "These findings suggest that citrus consumption is associated with reduced all-cancer incidence, especially for subjects having simultaneously high green tea consumption. Further work on the specific citrus constituents is warranted and clinical trials are ultimately necessary to confirm the protective effect."
"Citrus consumption and cancer incidence: The Ohsaki Cohort Study, Li WQ, Tsuji I, et al, Int J Cancer, 2010 Jan 26; [Epub ahead of print]. (Address: Division of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Forensic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryou-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan).
Omega-3 Fatty Acids (Fish Oil) Supplementation For Pain Management
In a case series study involving 5 patients with neuropathic pain, results indicate that supplementation with omega-3 fish oil may play a role in pain management. The patients, who had different underlying diagnoses including cervical radiculopathy, thoracic outlet syndrome, fibromyalgia, carpal tunnel syndrome and burn injury, received high doses of omega-3 fatty acids in the form of fish oil (varying from 2400-7200 mg/day of EPA-DHA) for up to 19 months. At intervention end, significant pain reduction was observed using both subjective and objective measures. Thus, the authors conclude, "This first-ever reported case series suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be of benefit in the management of patients with neuropathic pain. Further investigations with randomized controlled trials in a more specific neuropathic pain population would be warranted."
"Omega-3 fatty acids for neuropathic pain: case series," Ko GD, Hum A, et al, Clin J Pain, 2010; 26(2): 168-72.
Vitamin D Supplementation May Benefit Women With HIV
In a follow-up study involving 884 HIV-infected pregnant women, results indicate that vitamin D status may be inversely associated with disease progression, anemia and all-cause mortality. The women were followed up for a median of 69.5 months. Low vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<32 ng/mL) was significantly associated with progression to WHO HIV disease stage III or greater. Additionally, women with low vitamin D status showed a 46% increased risk of developing anemia compared to women with adequate vitamin D status. Additionally, women in the highest quintile of vitamin D status showed a 42% reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Thus, the authors of this study conclude, "If confirmed in randomized trials, vitamin D supplementation could represent a simple and inexpensive method to prolonging the time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients, particularly in resource-limited settings."
"Vitamin D status of HIV-infected women and its association with HIV disease progression, anemia, and mortality," Mehta S, Fawzi WW, et al, PLoS One, 2010; 5(1): e8770.
Probiotic Supplementation Prior to Surgery May Benefit Patients Undergoing Colorectal Cancer Resection Surgery
In a randomized study involving 60 patients with colorectal cancer, oral supplementation with viable bifidobacterium prior to surgery was found to be associated with improvements in bacterial dysbiosis, immunity, intestinal flora, and reductions in post-operative infections, as compared to subjects who received routine enteral nutrition. Subjects in the treatment group were found to have fewer postoperative septic complications, as compared to subjects in the control group. The ratio of bifidobacterium/E-coli (B/E) was found to be significantly decreased in the treatment group postoperatively, as compared to pre-operatively (2.01 vs. 26.53). Stool SIgA was found to be higher in the treatment group 9 days post-operation, while serum IgG, IgM, IgA, IL-6, and CRP were found to be lower in the treatment group, versus the control group. These results suggest that patients with colorectal cancer undergoing resection may benefit from supplementation with bifidobacterium probiotics prior to surgery.
"[Effect of viable bifidobacterium supplement on the immune status and inflammatory response in patients undergoing resection for colorectal cancer]," Zhang JW, Du P, et al, Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi, 2010 Jan; 13(1): 40-3.
Gut Microbiota(Bacteria) And Type 2 Diabetes
In a study involving 18 diabetic adults and 18 non-diabetic adults, lower levels of gut microbiota were found to be present in diabetic adults. Fecal bacterial composition was investigated in the participants, and the proportions of phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia were significantly reduced in the diabetic group compared to the control group. Additionally, positive correlations were found between the ratios of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes as well as the ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella to C. coccoides-E. rectale and plasma glucose concentrations. Lastly, class Betaproteobacteria was highly enriched in diabetic compared to non-diabetic persons and positively correlated with plasma glucose. Thus, the authors conclude, "The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesit y and developing strategies to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota." Reference: "Gut microbiota in human adults with type 2 diabetes differs from non-diabetic adults," Larsen N, Jakobsen M, et al, PLoS One, 2010; 5(2): e9085. (Address: Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark
High Intakes of EPA and DHA May Reduce Risk of Chronic Diseases
In a cross-sectional study involving 357 Yup'ik Eskimos, red blood cell EPA and DHA were found to be inversely and linearly associated with triglycerides, positively and linearly associated with HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I, and inversely and nonlinearly associated with C-reactive protein (with regards to CRP, for DHA only at concentrations >7% of total fatty acids and for EPA, stronger at concentrations > 3% of total fatty acids). In addition, DHA was positively linearly associated with LDL and total cholesterol, while for EPA, the associations were nonlinear and were restricted to concentrations <5% of total fatty acids. The authors conclude, "Increasing EPA and DHA intakes to amounts well above those consumed by the general US population may have strong beneficial effects on chronic disease risk."
"Associations of very high intakes of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids with biomarkers of chronic disease risk among Yup'ik Eskimos," Makhoul A, Kristal AR, et al, Am J Clin Nutr, 2010 Jan 20;
Acupuncture Reduces Back Pain and Pelvic Pain in Pregnant Women
In a study involving 40 pregnant women with low back and pelvic pain, but otherwise healthy, treatment with acupuncture (8 treatments over the course of 6 weeks), starting at either gestational week 20 (group 1) or week 26 (group 2) was found to reduce pain in both groups, assessed via Pain-O-Meter, visual analogue scale, short-form McGill pain questionnaire, and short-form 36. Subjects who began treatment at week 26 were also found to have improvement in several variables listed on SF-36, despite increasing physical restrictions. Patients were followed up with 2-3 months after delivery. The results of this study suggest that acupuncture may be a safe and effective therapy for reducing low back and pelvic pain during pregnancy.
"Acupuncture treatment of pregnant women with low back and pelvic pain - an intervention study," Ekdahl L, Petersson K, Scand J Caring Sci, 2010 Jan 20;
Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Telomeric Aging in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease
In a prospective cohort study involving 608 ambulatory outpatients in California with stable coronary artery disease, an inverse relationship was observed between baseline omega-3 fatty acid levels (DHA and EPA) and rate of telomere shortening, over a 5 year period. Subjects in the lowest quartile of DHA + EPA were found to experience the fastest rate of telomere shortening, as compared to those in the highest quartile of DHA + EPA, who experienced the slowest rate of telomere shortening. For every 1 standard deviation increase in DHA+EPA levels, the odds of telomere shortening reduced by 32% (adjusted OR=0.68). The authors conclude, "Among this cohort of patients with coronary artery disease, there was an inverse relationship between baseline blood levels of marine omega-3 fatty acids and the rate of telomere shortening over 5 years."
"Association of marine omega-3 fatty acid levels with telomeric aging in patients with coronary heart disease," Farzaneh-Far R, Lin J, et al, JAMA, 2010; 303(3): 250-7. (Address: Division of Cardiology, Room 5G1, San Francisco General Hospital, 1001 Potrero Ave, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ).